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Summary writing
Read the following passage carefully. Based on the information in the 
passage, summarize in not more than 120 words, the Cornell 
note-taking method.
Use your own words as far as possible. Marks will be deducted 
for copying sentences or long phrases directly from the passage.


 While many university students view note-taking as an activity conducted 
simply during lectures, solid note-taking skills require preparation and 
reflection as well. Lecture notes can serve as an important tool for 
reviewing lessons and condensing or extracting key concepts. One method of 
note-taking that is commonly taught to university students is the Cornell 
method of note-taking, developed by Dr Walter Pauk, a Cornell University 
professor. The Cornell method is not really a system of taking or recording 
notes; it is more a system for organizing your notes into an effective study 
guide. It promotes active learning and critical thinking, and thus provides 
a method by which you can increase your comprehension of class material. 
There are six stages involved in the Cornell note-taking method known 
as the 6 R's of note-taking.

During a lecture, simply record as many facts and ideas as you can. 
Write legibly the main points of the lecture by leaving out unnecessary 
words. Use only key words. You do not have to record every word that the 
lecturer says or write your notes in a grammatically correct form. To ensure 
that your notes make sense weeks later, fill in blanks and make incomplete 
sentences complete immediately after the lecture.
 
It is also important that you reduce important facts and ideas to 
key words and phrases as soon as possible. In other words, you have to 
read through and condense your notes in order to increase your understanding 
and recall. This must be done within 24 - 48 hours of the lecture in order 
to increase the amount of material you remember by approximately 80 per cent. 
Another way of looking at this is that, if you fail to read and condense your 
notes within 24 - 48 hours of the lecture, you will forget approximately 
80 per cent of the material. This means you have to spend additional time 
memorising the information prior to a test. Summarizing your lecture notes 
clarifies meanings and relationships, reinforces continuity and strengthens 
memory. It is a way of preparing for the examination gradually and well 
ahead of time.

Now, in the next stage, you need to cover your notes and try to say what 
is in them in your own words. Recitation is a very important stage in 
the process of retaining information. It is an effective way of 
learning because hearing your thoughts helps you to sharpen your 
thinking process; and stating ideas and facts in your own words 
challenges you to think about the meaning of the information.

After reviewing and reciting your notes, give yourself some 'waiting time'. Then 
re-read your notes and think about them. Read your textbook to supplemet and 
clarify your notes. Reflective students think about the information they have 
gathered. Reflecting is a step beyond learning note content. It reinforces learning 
by the relating of facts and ideas to other learning and knowledge. You should 
also make generalizations and draw conclusions. Reflecting helps you to become 
a more active, critical thinker.

The way to prevent forgetting is to review your notes frequently. A good guideline 
to follow is to review your notes every night or several times during the week 
by reciting, not re-reading. Brief review sessions planned throughout the 
semester will aid comprehension and retention of information more than 
'cramming' the day before a test. It will also reduce stress.
 
The summary of your notes goes at the bottom of the page The summary should not 
be a word-for-word re-writing of your notes. It should be in your own words and 
reflect the main points you want to remember from your your notes You should 
summarize each main idea using complete sentences. There are three ways to go 
about summarizing. First, you can summarize each page of your notes at the bottom 
of each page. Second, you can summarize the whole lecture on the last page and 
finally, you can combine them and do both. Reading through your summary in 
preparation for an exam is a good way to review.

As information presented in class often contains the central concepts of the 
course and the material most likely to be included in the examination, you should 
be aware of the importance of note-taking. The 6 R's of note-taking help 
students better organize their notes and recall more information from their 
lectures through active listening and purposeful note-taking.
                                                                    (725 words)

Remember Write your summary in ONE paragraph only!

ESSAY Reading is more important today than it has ever been and steps should be taken to encourage the reading habit, especially among students. Research has shown that students nowadays do not read unless it is absolutely necessary. Write an essay in not less than 250 words giving your views on the importance of encouraging the reading habit among students. You may use the following points to support your views. - reading is important if a person wants to be well-informed - reading is important as it helps a person to succeed in his/her career - reading helps to improve one's command of a language